The former king of Belgium, Albert II, has refused to undergo DNA testing in a case aimed at proving he fathered a love-child in the 1960s.
A Brussels court ordered the ex-monarch, 84, to provide a saliva sample in three months or risk being presumed to be the father of Delphine Boël, 50.
The ex-king denies the paternity claim and is said to be seeking legal advice on a possible appeal.
Ms Boël’s lawyers have welcomed the DNA request.
The former monarch announced his abdication in 2013, citing ill health. He stepped down on 21 July, Belgium’s national day.
He was sworn in as the sixth king of the Belgians on 9 August 1993. His accession followed the death of his brother, King Baudouin, at the age of 62.
Ms Boël’s mother, Baroness Sybille de Selys Longchamps, says she had an affair with the king spanning two decades. The allegations emerged over a decade ago that he was the father of Ms Boël, causing a royal scandal.
There is some speculation in the media that this may have influenced his decision to abdicate.
Belgium has a constitutional monarchy in which the king plays a largely ceremonial role.
One of the duties the monarch does have is trying to resolve constitutional crises.